ERP    PROGRAM EKONOMSKIH REFORMI PRED NACIONALNIM KONVENTOM: STRUKTURNE REFORME U FOKUSU

PROGRAM EKONOMSKIH REFORMI PRED NACIONALNIM KONVENTOM: STRUKTURNE REFORME U FOKUSU

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Članovi Međusektorske radne grupe Nacionalnog konventa za praćenje Programa ekonomskih reformi (Economic Reform Program – ERP) učestvovali su u predstavljanju Nacrta Programa ekonomskih reformi 2021-2023 i raspravi o strukturnim reformama sa Ministarstvom finansija i drugim resornim ministarstvima.. Na sastanku se diskutovalo o energetici, reformi javnih preduzeća, budžeta za poljoprivredu i drugim pitanjima. Koordinator radne grupe za praćenje Programa ekonomskih reformi je Marko Malović, a sednicu je vodila Verica Ignjatović, pomoćnik ministra u Ministarstvu finansija.

Neophodno je navesti izvore finansiranja strukturne reforme, kao i procenjenu vrednost projekta (krediti, donacije, sopstvena sredstva) kako bi finansiranje strukturnih projekata bilo javno dostupno.

Raspravljalo se o agrarnom budžetu, gde je naglašeno da predloženi nacrt ERP-a konstatuje da oko 70% nacionalnog agrarnog budzeta  čine subvencije koje često ne daju razvojne efekte. Preporuka je da ERP predvidi suštinsku, sveobuhvatnu reformu agrarnog budžeta kroz usvajanje nacionalne agrarne politike i unapređenje usklađenosti domaćih agrarnih politika sa Zajedničnom agrarnom politikom EU.

Unapređenje ruralne insfratrukture treba da bude prioritet u rešavanju gorućih problema ruralnih sredina, a svakako na indirektan način doprinosi i segmentu demografske politike, jer povećava šansu za ostanak mladih na selima. Planirano je da  ruralna infrastruktura bude finansirana iz programa IPARD III, koji bi  trebalo da bude usvojen do kraja  godine. U nacrtu ERP-a nema neophodnih  mera podrške lokalnim samoupravama u segmentu ruralne infrastrukture.

Naglašena je i važnost razmene znanja između akademskog sektora i proizvođača,  ali ne postoji kao mera ili aktivnost u delu strukturnih reformi. Sugestija je da se u ERP-u predvide mere podrške transferu znanja, što doprinosi konkurentnosti poljoprivrede i ruralne ekonomije.

Sanja Filipović, Radna grupa za poglavlje 20 – Preduzetništvo – Komentari Nacionalnog konventa na ERP od prošle godine su usvojeni. Predlog da se za strukturnu reformu br. 8 kao krovni dokument navede i Strategija industrijske politike jer ta strategija u okviru svojih 5 posebnih ciljeva navodi i transformaciju industrije od linearnog ka cirkularnom modelu.  Iz Ministarstva privrede saznajemo da će se baviti merama cirkularne ekonomije u saradnji sa Privrednom komorom Srbije i Ministarstvom zaštite životne sredine.

Strukturna reforma br 6 – Sprovođenje strukturne mere unapređenja ruralne infrastrukture, kroz finansiranje investicija koje se odnose na izgradnju postrojenja za prečišćavanje otpadnih voda i upravljanje otpadom. U indikator rezultata obavezno navesti koliki broj postrojenja će biti izgrađen kroz ovu meru, kao i na osnovu kojih kriterijuma će se odabrati projekti – lokacije  za ova postrojenja. Strukturna mera podrazumeva sprovođenje na teritoriji cele Srbije po jednakim kriterijumima radi ujednačenog ekonomskog razvoja.

Strukturna reforma br. 7 – Podizanje konkurentnosti industrije

Nije jasno kako će se poraditi na transformaciji industrije od linearnog ka cirkularnom modelu. U okviru ove strukturne reforme takođe predvideti stroge kriterijume zaštite životne sredine i uvođenje novih i čistijih tehnologija kao preduslov za dobijanje podsticaja za industriju.

Strukturna reforma br. 8 – Uvođenje koncepta cirkularne ekonomije

Ciljni broj preduzeća koja će primeniti koncept cirkularne ekonomije kroz cirkularne vaučere je 10 do kraja 2022. godine. Kako će se birati ova preduzeća, i zašto samo njih 10?

Ciljni broj jedinica lokalne samouprave koje će izraditi lokalne Mape puta za cirkularnu ekonomiju i postati deo cirkularne zajednice je 5 do 2023. godine. Po kojim kriterijumima će one biti odabrane?

Komentari RG 27 Životna sredina, će biti stavljeni u poseban aneks dokumenta, a povratni odgovori će biti objavljeni kao aneks.

Nikola Marković, RG 10 Informaciono fruštvo i mediji – Program ekonomskih reformi postaje sve značajniji dokument za planiranje i upravljanje strukturnim reformama u Srbiji. Bitna karakteristika najnovije verzije ERP-a je da su skoro sve struкturne reforme podređene adekvatnim primenama digitalizacije. Nikola Marković kooordinator RG za Poglavlje 10 je podržao novi nacrt i ukazao na neke nedostatke kao što su:

  • Pojam digitalna ekonomija je nepotpuno definisan. Treba dodati  da digitalnu ekonomiju čine još: digitalizacija procesa rada i pružanja usluga, razvoj novih digitalnih proizvoda i usluga, širenje domaće proizvodnje softvera, primene koncepta IND 4.0 u modernizaciji industrije i dr.
  • Primena projekta “Smart City” u Srbiji zaostaje za trendovima u svetu pa čak i u okruženju.

Predlog: Treba pozvati IT kompanije koje imaju ponudu “Smart city” rešenja  da agilnije promovišu svoju ponudu i podsticati interesovanje lokalne samouprave za “Smart city” projekte. Takođe, Ministarstvo za državnu upravu i lokalnu samoupravu i Stalna koinferencija gradova i opština treba da iniciraju, koordiniraju i organizuju razmenu iskustava u primeni “Smart city” projekata.

  • Digitalizacija zdravstvenog sistema – Realizacija ovog sistema kasni i realizuje se parcijalno a što se negativno odrazilo na improvizacije i za vreme COVID pandemije.

Predlog: Pre pristupanja digitalizaciji treba izraditi i javno verifikovatu koncept Integralnog informacionog sistema zdravstva.

Kao potencijalni rizik treba dodati gubljenje i objavljivanje ličnih podataka pacijenata do čega može doći slučajno ili kao krađa ličnih podataka.

Marijana Radovanović, radna grupa za poglavlje 17 – Oporezivanje i 32 – Finansijska kontrola – Naglasak stavljamo na potrebu za unapređenjem upravljanja u javnom sektoru u najširem smislu i smatramo da bi u narednom ciklusu tome trebalo dati  značaj jer je dobro upravljanje preduslov za sprovođenje drugih reformi. U tom smislu potrebno je intezivirati uvođenje sistema Finansijskog upravljanja i kontrole  i profesionalizaciju menadžmenta. Regulativa po ovom pitanju je usklađena, ali se ne sprovodi. Ne postoji jedinstven registar korisnika javnih sredstava, jedinstven spisak državne imovine.   Država ne zna šta sve poseduje. Neophodno je urediti ovu oblast u smisli sačinjavanja jedinstvenih evidencija I promene regulative koje bi poboljšale upravljanje imovinom.

U zaključku, Koordinatorka Konventa, Nataša Dragojlović se zahvalila svim učesnicima na strpljenju i efikasnosti imajući u vidu da nije bio u pitanju klasični sastanak, nego konsultacije za obimnu oblast strukturnih reformi.

ECONOMIC REFORM PROGRAM BEFORE THE NATIONAL CONVENTION

Members of the Multi-sectoral Working Group of the National Convention for Monitoring the Economic Reform Program (ERP) participated in the presentation of the Draft of Economic Reform Program 2021-2023 and the discussion on the structural reforms with the Ministry of Finance and other line ministries. Reform of public enterprises, the budget for agriculture were some of the topics in focus. The coordinator of the working group for monitoring the Economic Reform Program is Marko Malović, and the session was chaired by Verica Ignjatović, Assistant Minister in the Ministry of Finance

It is necessary to list the sources of financing when it comes to the structural reform, as well as the estimated value of the project (loans, donations, own resources) in order to make the financing of structural projects publicly available.

The agrarian budget was also in focus, where it was emphasized that the proposed ERP draft states that about 70% of the national agrarian budget consists of subsidies that often do not produce effects in terms of development. It is recommended that the ERP envisages a substantial, comprehensive reform of the agricultural budget through the adoption of a national agricultural policy and the improvement of the harmonization of domestic agricultural policies with the EU Common Agricultural Policy.

Improving rural infrastructure should be a priority in solving the burning problems of rural areas, and certainly indirectly it will contribute to the demographic policy, because it increases the chances for young people to stay in the villages. Rural infrastructure is planned to be financed from the IPARD III program, which should be adopted by the end of the year. The draft does not contain the necessary measures to support local governments in the segment of rural infrastructure.

The importance of knowledge exchange between the academic sector and producers was also emphasized, but it does not exist as a measure or activity in the part of structural reforms. The suggestion is to envisage measures to support the transfer of knowledge in the ERP, which contributes to the competitiveness of agriculture and the rural economy.

Sanja Filipović, Working Group for Chapter 20 – Entrepreneurship – Comments of the National Convention on ERP from last year were adopted. The proposal for structural reform no. 8 also lists the Industrial Policy Strategy as an umbrella document because that strategy, within its 5 special goals, also states the transformation of the industry from linear to a circular model. We learned from the Ministry of Economy that it will deal with circular economy measures in cooperation with the Serbian Chamber of Commerce and the Ministry of Environmental Protection.

Structural Reform No. 6 – Implementation of a structural measure for the improvement of rural infrastructure, through investments related to the construction of wastewater and waste management treatment plants. In the results indicator, it is obligatory to state how many plants will be built through this measure, as well as on the basis of which criteria the projects – locations for these plants, will be selected. The structural measure implies implementation on the territory of the whole of Serbia according to the same criteria for the purpose of uniform economic development.

Structural reform no. 7 – Increasing the competitiveness of the industry

It is not clear how the transformation of the industry from a linear to a circular model will be conducted. As part of this structural reform, also envisages strict environmental criteria and the introduction of modern and cleaner technologies as a precondition for obtaining incentives for industry.

Structural reform no. 8 – Introduction of the concept of circular economy

The target number of companies that will apply the concept of circular economy through circular vouchers is ten by the end of 2022. How will these companies be selected, and why only ten of them?

The target number of local self-government units that will create local Roadmaps for the circular economy and become part of the circular community is five by 2023. Which selection criteria are chosen?

Comments of the Working group for Chapter 27 Environment, will be placed in a separate annex to the document, and feedback will be published as an annex.

Nikola Marković, working group for Chapter 10 Information society and the Media – The Economic Reform Program is becoming an increasingly important document for planning and managing structural reforms in Serbia. An important feature of the latest version of ERP is that almost all structural reforms are subject to adequate digitalization applications. Nikola Markovic, Coordinator of the WG for Chapter 10, supported the new draft and pointed out some shortcomings such as:

  • The term digital economy is incompletely defined. It should be noted that the digital economy also consists of: digitalization of work processes and service provision, development of new digital products and services, expansion of domestic software production, application of the IND 4.0 concept in the modernization of industry, etc.
  • The implementation of the “Smart City” project in Serbia is not in line with the trends in the world and not even to those in the region.

Suggestion: IT companies that could offer “Smart city” solutions should be invited to promote their ideas and encourage local government’s interest in “Smart city” projects. Also, the Ministry of State Administration and Local Self-Government and the Standing Conference of Towns and Municipalities should initiate, coordinate and organize the exchange of experiences in the implementation of “Smart city” projects.

  • Digitization of the health care system – The implementation of this system is overdue and is being implemented partially, which had a negative impact on improvisations during the COVID pandemic.

Proposal: Before starting the process of digitalization, the concept of the Integrated Health Information System should be developed and publicly verified.

The potential risk is the loss and disclosure of patients’ personal data, which can occur accidentally or as theft of personal data.

Marijana Radovanović, Working Group for Chapter 17 – Taxation and 32 – Financial Control – We emphasize the need to improve governance in the public sector in the broadest sense and believe that in the next cycle this should be given importance because good governance is a prerequisite for other reforms. In that sense, it is necessary to intensify the introduction of the system of Financial Management and Control and professionalization of management. The regulations on this issue have been harmonized but are not being implemented. There is no single register of users of public funds, not a single list of state property. The state does not know what does it own. It is necessary to regulate this area in terms of creating uniformed records and changing regulations that would improve asset management.

In conclusion, the Coordinator of the National Convention, Natasa Dragojlovic, thanked all participants for their patience and efficiency, bearing in mind that this was not a typical meeting, but a consultation for a large area of structural reforms.

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